• Echocardiogram – A graphic record of the heart that provides information about its position, internal parts such as valves, a. the motion of the heart walls. The procedure ( echocardiography ) involves ultrasonic waves directed over the chest.
  • Edema – An abnormal buildup of fluid in body tissue.
  • Electrocardiography (EKG) – An EKG records the electrical activity of the heart. “Leads” (wires) are placed on the chest and the extremities.
  • Endoscopy – Endoscopy uses either a bendable or a rigid tube with a camera and a fiber-optic light on the end to view areas inside the body. Doctors use endoscopy to perform biopsies and staging. Many different organs can be viewed by endoscoPY. Each Procedure .s its own name:
    • Esophagus: esophagoscopy
    • Stomach: gastroscopy
    • Colon : colonoscopy or sigmoidoscoPY
    • Bladder: cystoscoPY
    • Trachea (windpipe), bronchi, and lungs: bronchoscopy
    • Cervix and vagina: colposcopy
    • Abdomen: laparoscopy
    • Lung: thoracoscopy or mediastinoscoPy
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) – EUS combines ultrasound and endoscopy so that doctors can see the amount of cancer in nearby tissues.
  • Erythropoietin – A naturally occurring substance that stimulates the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide through the bloodstream to and from all cells in the body.